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Topological features without a lattice in Rashba spin-orbit coupled atoms

TitleTopological features without a lattice in Rashba spin-orbit coupled atoms
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2021
AuthorsA.. Valdes-Curiel, D.. Trypogeorgos, Q.. - Y. Liang, R.. P. Anderson, and I.. B. Spielman
JournalNat. Commun.
Date Publishedjan

Topological order can be found in a wide range of physical systems, from crystalline solids, photonic meta-materials and even atmospheric waves to optomechanic, acoustic and atomic systems. Topological systems are a robust foundation for creating quantized channels for transporting electrical current, light, and atmospheric disturbances. These topological effects are quantified in terms of integer-valued `invariants', such as the Chern number, applicable to the quantum Hall effect, or the Z2 invariant suitable for topological insulators. Here, we report the engineering of Rashba spin-orbit coupling for a cold atomic gas giving non-trivial topology, without the underlying crystalline structure that conventionally yields integer Chern numbers. We validated our procedure by spectroscopically measuring both branches of the Rashba dispersion relation which touch at a single Dirac point. We then measured the quantum geometry underlying the dispersion relation using matter-wave interferometry to implement a form of quantum state tomography, giving a Berry's phase with magnitude . This implies that opening a gap at the Dirac point would give two dispersions (bands) each with half-integer Chern number, potentially implying new forms of topological transport.Here, the authors study topology in spin-orbit coupled 87Rb atoms by using time domain spectroscopy and quantum state tomography. They measure full quantum state to extract the Berry phase of the system and show signatures of a half-integer Chern index.