Quantum limits on estimating a classical force
Quantum limits on sensing a time-dependent classical force have long been of interest for gravitational-wave detection and will be relevant to the sensitivity of the upgraded version of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Observatory. Such limits are now becoming important at an entirely different scale, in the rapidly emerging field of optomechanics for nanoscale mechanical resonators. I will review how the standard quantum limit for force detection arises and discuss how to overcome it using ideas that have been developed over the last thirty years for gravitational-wave detection and using a new framework that is now emerging from quantum information science.
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